The reason for the two figures HEI is the IJA use both fused and fuseless HEI ammunition, with the removal of the fuse you free up more space to put more HEI filler, by and large the ammunition stay the same upscaling as the actual cannon with little development. Ammunition must ship UPS ground. That's a lofty claim, but AEW pilots' recent combat sorties prove the ammo is enhancing combat airpower. Sold in 6 Round Pack.
It was based on the American Model aircraft Browning machine gun but achieved a higher rate of fire by using a smaller, slower Breda Vickers cartridge. The safe answer for 9mm self-defense ammo is the standard hollow point. Originally three basic types of ammunition were developed in the Soviet Union for the land-based weapons: high explosive incendiary, high explosive fragmentation with tracer, and an armour-piercing ballistic capped with tracer.
High Explosive Incendiary HEI moves ammo from replinisher to loader, returns spent and unfired rounds from loader to replinisher. Inspect ammunition prior to usage, and do not use ammunition that show signs of corrosion regardless of how minordeep dents, or physical damages. Note that the caliber of the ammunition. Find single-box and bulk 7. Zombie Max ammo physically resembles Hornaday Critical Defense line with the exception of a pea green polymer insert rather than the usual red.
Multinational Defense has the skill sets required to supply our customers with military ammunition including Small Calibers from 5. These Pistol Parts through the professionals at Heinie are produced making use of extremely durable resources that will supply you with years of reliable service. Informally used to refer to weapons or ammunition manufactured in China after the establishment of the PRC in Serious shooters use Black Hills Ammo.
The USAF introduced the 20 mm M39 revolver cannon to replace the M24, while the Navy instead combined the original Hispano design with a lighter round for better muzzle velocity in. The caliber delivers good penetration, good medium range performance, and reasonable accuracy. Your email address will not be published. Sold in 6 round pack. Contact directly with firearms manufacturers and dealers. Projectiles are typically 75 to mm in long. Each round has both capabilities. Ignition results in a very bright flash and burn.
Buy Chinese 7. A Guide to Ammunition Collecting A wealth of useful information for new and experienced cartridge collectors.
.45 ACP HEI Incendiary Ammunition
Incendiary ammo. Circular Saw comes equipped with a contoured design and front pommel handle for added comfort and grip. The armor-piercing ability can vary widely, allowing for.Weapons using this calibre range from anti-materiel rifles and anti-tank rifles to aircraft autocannons and anti-aircraft guns.
Only rarely do two designers use the same case length, so this designation is usually definitive. Some cartridge types have additional letters or information about them listed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the model scale, see List of scale model sizes. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Categories : 20mm sniper rifles Large-caliber cartridges. Hidden categories: Articles needing additional references from April All articles needing additional references. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. South Africa. United States. GIAT M Czech Republic.
Rheinmetall Rh Denel Land Systems GI Russian Empire. Japanese Empire. Hispano-Suiza HS. Colt Mk 12 cannon. Madsen 20 mm anti-aircraft cannon. Type 97 automatic cannon. Nazi Germany. Kingdom of Italy. Rheinmetall 2 cm KwK I only know details of four types of ammunition so far, they have a very odd looking, belted cartridge case drawn from steel with a mechanical percussion primer.
The first shell has a thin walled body lined with a coil of steel wire that produces large numbers of fragments on detonation. This round is designated VOGA and it is used for ground targets only, the shell is fitted with an aluminum nose fuze VMG-A without self-destruction feature. The black shell has white letters on it, describing the type of shell, type of explosive filler, lot-number and year.
The fuze may have a dark blue band painted on, the meaning of this is not known. The second shell type has the same thin walled body lined with a coil of steel wire but carries another fuze.
Improoved VOG shells and target practise smoke shells exist as well, see details in the table below. Sadly, no further information is available. Maximum pressure is ,7 to ,0MPa for the newer rounds, a single round weights g and has an overall length of mm. A KV percussion primer is threaded into the brass cartridge case. Two types of projectiles can be found, old and new ones.
The old ones are easily identified by their distinctive shape, they have a very large conical fuze and a typical stud at the base, were a piece of lead wire decopperer is fitted. This stud was omitted at the later advanvced projectiles, the lead wire was taped to the base of the shell.
The newer projectiles also have fuzes of more modern construction and of smaller size. This round was introduced in the late s and is used in the 2A42 cannon fixed to the BMP-2 and in movable mounts on Ka and Mi-8 helicopters with double ammunition supply and a selective fire rate of and rpm. The 2A72 cannon, installed in the BMP-3 is recoil operated and has a fixed fire rate of rpm, the cannon weights 84kg and is mm long.
The two onboard 2A38M AAA cannons use two water-cooled barrels and fire rpm each, to a range of 0. The two barrel 2A38M is gas operated and weights kg, its length is mm. One of the barrels carries a muzzle velocity sensor. To clear misfires or jams the PP-L pyrocartridge is used. It consists of 8 onboard 9M missiles capable of a range of 2,5 to 8km, that's an altitude of up to 3,5km ft. The warhead of the missile consists of a continuous-rod type warhead with a diameter of 5m that cuts into the airframe of the engaged aircraft.
The improoved Tunguska-M1 early s is the most modern air defense system of the Russian Federation and it must be extremely effective, sadly, no reports of its actual performance in wartime combat are known. Shells for the ground based guns use the nose fuze AM. Cartridges are linked in 9H type desintegrating steel belts.These are electrically primed cartridges with high-explosive-incendiary projectiles and centrifugally armed, point-detonating fuzes. They are used in the M39, M61, M, and M automatic cannons.
The cartridge case is unpainted but has nomenclature and loading information stenciled on it. Cartridges of current manufacture have projectiles painted yellow with a red band below the fuze. Projectiles of earlier manufacture were painted yellow overall, or red with an olive drab ogive.
Nomenclature and loading information is stenciled in black on the projectile body and may be stamped in the rotating band. The fuze is unpainted and unmarked. The models differ in the method of loading the projectiles. The M56A3 has the HE mix and the incendiary mix combined in one pellet.
The M56A4 has the incendiary pellet inserted into the projectile, then the HE mix pellet is added. This improves fire start capability.
PD, MA3. Collaborative Ordnance Data Repository. Iraq Ordnance Identification Guide TMSmall Caliber Ammunition chg 7, Ordnance, Explosives, and Related Items. Share This Topic Bulletpicker Forum. Scroll Prev Top Next More.Each round has both capabilities. HEI ammunition is fused either mechanically or chemically.5.56 Phoenix Rising Ammo Test
The armor-piercing ability can vary widely, allowing for more focused fragmentation or larger scatter. HEI ammunition was originally developed for use in large- caliber cannonhowitzer and naval artillery. Currently, HEI rounds are most commonly made in medium-caliber sizes of 20 mm, 25 mm, and 30 mm. They are fired from various platforms, including aircraft, anti-aircraft cannonsand anti-missile systemsas well as common battlefield howitzersthough the latter has gone through a recent decline in use.
HEI ammunition has also been used on the battlefield against tanks and other armoured vehicles, but this has become impractical due to the invention of modern armour systems such as Chobham and reactive armourwhich can absorb most high-explosive rounds currently used.
Recently, APIS armour-piercing incendiary shells have been used; these penetrate the target using the kinetic properties of the round before the incendiary round goes off, smothering the crew in flames, cooking off ammunition and igniting combustible materials, generally destroying the target. The shells were first employed in naval batteriesbut soon found their way to land-based howitzers as well.
They caused fires, which on ships can be difficult to extinguish in the tight spaces. Also, fired at tanks and soft targetsthey can cause fires that completely engulf the vehicle, killing anyone inside.
Occasionally, HEIs were used against tanks heavily armoured and also lightly armoured vehicles, but, since the invention of modern battle armour, such as Chobham and reactive armourthese shells have become less and less practical for anti-tank work and more useful for destroying "soft" targets such as air basestrenchesor bunkersin which they can create fires of over degrees Celsius. Incendiary shells are no longer in use by many countries due to bans on the use of phosphorus weapons.
Armour-piercing shot and shell penetrate the target using kinetic energy before the incendiary charge ignites, smothering the crew in flames, detonating ammunition, and destroying the target. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from High explosive incendiary. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Ordnance, Explosives, and Related Items
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Categories : Artillery ammunition Anti-tank rounds Explosive weapons Incendiary weapons. Hidden categories: Articles needing additional references from March All articles needing additional references Commons link is locally defined.
Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Add links. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ammunition.The M HEI-T round offers the accuracy and performance needed for light materiel and fire suppression.
This round is used to destroy lightly armored vehicles and helicopters armored and unarmored and to suppress antitank guided missile ATGM positions, crew served weapons, dismounted infantry, and likely enemy positions past coaxial 7.
7.62 x39 Phoenix Rising HEI Incendiary Ammunition
The HEI-T cartridge is a fixed type, percussion primed round. The cartridge consists of a high explosive incendiary HEI filled, one piece projectile body crimped to a steel cartridge case. The projectile body consists of a hollow steel body, M fuse, 32 grams of an HEI mix, and pressed in tracer.
The M provides superior arming delay, graze and extended range sensitivity, and self-destruct compared to existing medium caliber fuzes. Gases produced by the burning propellant discharge the projectile from the gun at 1, meters per second plus or minus 20 meters per second.
On impact the fuse M functions and the HEI filler detonates, dispersing the incendiary mixture in a 5 meter radius. If the projectile has not impacted at about 3, meters, the mechanical fuse will self detonate the round. Subscribe Now! Sign In Sign Out. Further Reading. Site maintained by: John Pike. Join the GlobalSecurity. Enter Your Email Address.The most common solution used in such instances is to use so-called pairwise deletion of missing data in correlation matrices, where a correlation between each pair of variables is calculated from all cases that have valid data on those two variables.
However, it may sometimes lead to serious problems. For example, a systematic bias may result from a "hidden" systematic distribution of missing data, causing different correlation coefficients in the same correlation matrix to be based on different subsets of subjects.
In addition to the possibly biased conclusions that you could derive from such "pairwise calculated" correlation matrices, real problems may occur when you subject such matrices to another analysis (e.
Thus, if you are using the pairwise method of deleting the missing data, be sure to examine the distribution of missing data across the cells of the matrix for possible systematic "patterns. If the pairwise deletion of missing data does not introduce any systematic bias to the correlation matrix, then all those pairwise descriptive statistics for one variable should be very similar. However, if they differ, then there are good reasons to suspect a bias.
For example, if the mean (or standard deviation) of the values of variable A that were taken into account in calculating its correlation with variable B is much lower than the mean (or standard deviation) of those values of variable A that were used in calculating its correlation with variable C, then we would have good reason to suspect that those two correlations (A-B and A-C) are based on different subsets of data, and thus, that there is a bias in the correlation matrix caused by a non-random distribution of missing data.
Pairwise Deletion of Missing Data vs. Another common method to avoid loosing data due to casewise deletion is the so-called mean substitution of missing data (replacing all missing data in a variable by the mean of that variable).
Mean substitution offers some advantages and some disadvantages as compared to pairwise deletion. Its main advantage is that it produces "internally consistent" sets of results ("true" correlation matrices). The main disadvantages are:Spurious Correlations. There is a third variable (the initial size of the fire) that influences both the amount of losses and the number of firemen.
If you "control" for this variable (e. The main problem with spurious correlations is that we typically do not know what the "hidden" agent is. However, in cases when we know where to look, we can use partial correlations that control for (partial out) the influence of specified variables. Are correlation coefficients "additive. For example, an average of correlation coefficients in a number of samples does not represent an "average correlation" in all those samples. In cases when you need to average correlations, they first have to be converted into additive measures.
For example, before averaging, you can square them to obtain coefficients of determination, which are additive (as explained before in this section), or convert them into so-called Fisher z values, which are also additive. How to Determine Whether Two Correlation Coefficients are Significant.
A test is available that will evaluate the significance of differences between two correlation coefficients in two samples. The outcome of this test depends not only on the size of the raw difference between the two coefficients but also on the size of the samples and on the size of the coefficients themselves.
Consistent with the previously discussed principle, the larger the sample size, the smaller the effect that can be proven significant in that sample. In general, due to the fact that the reliability of the correlation coefficient increases with its absolute value, relatively small differences between large correlation coefficients can be significant.
For example, a difference of. To index Purpose, Assumptions.